SIDDEEQ AHMAD NAGRAH
WAYS OF ALLAH – ‘SUNNAT ALLAH’
QUANTUM INPUT – ‘QUDRAT ALLAH’
THE DAY OF JUDGEMENT
|1. DIVINE GUIDANCE|
THE POST REVELATION PERIOD
|2. THE WORD OF ALLAH|
|3. THE UNIVERSE|
ORIGIN OF THE UNIVERSE
Divine Energy – ‘Nur’
DEVELOPMENT IN STAGES – EVOLUTION
ANOTHER MOVEMENT OF THE SUN
LIFE IN THE UNIVERSE
CONQUEST OF SPACE
Sight from Space
THE LAST HOUR – ‘YAUM AL-QIYAMAH’
THE LAST HOUR OF EARTH
A NEW UNIVERSE – FINAL ACCOUNTABILITY
TIMING OF DOOMSDAY
CREATION IN PAIRS
Predestination and Free-will
Single Being (Nafs-e-Wahid)
|4. THE ORIGIN OF LIFE|
DUST AND CLAY
|5. THE GUIDED EVOLUTION|
THE QURANIC CONCEPT
THE GENEALOGICAL TREE
THE STABLE STATE
HOMO SAPIENS SAPIENS – HUMANITY
|7. A DISTINGUISHED CREATION|
The Life Hereafter
HUMAN PERSONALITY (‘NAFS')
THREE ASPECTS OF HUMAN PERSONALITY (‘NAFS’):
‘Nafs-e-Ammara’ or the Carnal Self
‘Nafs-e-Lawwama’ or the Moral Self
‘Nafs-e-Mutmainna’ or Self-at-Peace
SELF PURIFICATION – ‘TAZKIYAH’
Friends of Allah – ‘Wali Allah’
1. To accept Islam and to live Islam is easy for those who are convinced that the Quran is a Divine Writ and the Word of Allah. Keeping this fact in view, this treatise about the message of the Quran and its divine origin is written as an invitation to those who seek the Truth – an invitation to the Faith which Allah has gifted to us. It also invites Muslims to ponder the reasons of their fall and the efforts they need to make for the emergence of an Islamic World Order.
2. My father, late Choudary Rahmat Ali Nagra advocate, Lyallpur (Faisalabad), believed that Muslims had fallen from their pinnacle of glory because they ignored education and service to humanity. They confined Islam to mere rites and rituals and forgot mandatory directives of the Quran and the ProphetSAAW regarding social, political, economic and other spheres of human activity. It is a religious obligation for Muslims to acquire knowledge. He insisted that in addition to religious education and character building, the Muslim youth should be made aware of developments in science and other subjects. They should know their responsibilities as citizens of an Islamic state and they should be encouraged to develop their investigative and creative ability. He did his best within his means and made substantial contributions in his sphere of influence i.e. family, education and politics. May Allah bless him with His choicest blessings. Amen.
3. a) Till recently the scientists believed that somehow life cells came into existence inexplicably in the remote past but subsequently all life came from life. However, late Ch. Rahmat Ali Nagra, a committed Muslim and a devoted student of the Quran, maintained that ‘the creation of life is an act of God. It is a continuous process and that thunderstorms and atmospheric electricity facilitate interaction of water with tiny particles of dust and other matter suspended in the clouds to create life-building units which come down with rain’. He based his belief on various verses (ayat) of the Quran i.e.
i. “Allah initiates creation and repeats it.”
Al Quran, 10:34, (27:64, 29:19, 30:11,27)
“…He causeth the living to issue from the dead…”
Al Quran, 6:95, (3:27)
ii. “Do you not see how Allah drives the clouds then gathers them and piles them in masses from which pour down ‘Wadaq’. From heavens He sends down ‘Jibal’ wherein is cold, towards whom He wills and turning it away from whom He pleases. The flash of lightning almost snatches off men’s sight…”
Al Quran, 24:43
“And of His signs is that He shows you the lightning, by way both of fear and hope, and He sends down rain from the sky and with it gives life to the earth after it is dead. Verily in that are signs for those who are wise.” Al Quran, 30:24, (2:164; 45:5; 50:9-11), 16:10,65
iii. “We created man from sounding clay…”
Al Quran, 15:26-28, (55:14)
“…We send down rains from the sky, and produce on the earth every kind of noble creature, in pairs.”
Al Quran, 31:10
b) It is a matter of common observation that dry land becomes productive after it receives rain. But the Quran draws special attention to this matter and points out that there are signs in this phenomenon for those who reflect. It is very significant. Ch. Rahmat Ali had sufficient knowledge of Arabic to write a learned interpretation of the above quoted and other ayat to conclude that suspended particles of clay and moisture in the clouds produce life-building units under the influence of lightning. The Punjab Agricultural College, Lyallpur obliged and produced cloud like atmosphere in sterilized sealed glass tubes fitted with necessary arrangements to pass very high voltage electric sparks in the tubes. The result was positive but it was rejected on the presumption that sterilization was not perfect and that even a solitary living unit could multiply in the given conditions. Ch. Rahmat Ali Nagra died in March 1963. Soon after his death a report was published in the press that Russian scientists were able to obtain “life resembling” organism from non-living substance. According to another report (Newsweek, 15.4.1988) experiments had shown that when a spark passed through ‘primordial’ gases, it did produce the precursors of both Proteins and DNA, the ingredients of life; and that CLAY played a very important role in the creation of life producing Proteins and DNA.
4. The Quran is not a textbook of science but it does mention many phenomena of nature while emphasizing Divine Omnipotence and Wisdom. It is a book of knowledge and wisdom for those who believe and those who reflect. Many scholars who benefited from the Book have shared their gains with us. A few of such works are mentioned below. Some of the material from the available research publications has been used along with my views in this treatise which is only a brief pointer to some important aspects of the matter.
a) The “Mechanism Of Doomsday – Ultimate Fate Of The Universe” written by S. Bashiruddin Mahmood former Director Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission, is based on various ayat of the Quran and his conclusion coincides with the declaration of the famous physicist Stephen Hawking, that the presently expanding universe will roll back on itself and out of this high density phase it will be born again (another Big Bang).
“There would be a Day, when We shall roll up the heavens like a recorder rolls up a written scroll. As We began the first creation We shall repeat it. It is a promise upon Us. Lo! We are to perform it…” Al Quran 21:104
Another article “Symmetry of Universe and The Quranic Principle of Creation in Pairs” written by the same scientist enumerates the latest scientific discoveries and theories to elaborate the creation in pairs.
“And everything We have created in pairs that you may reflect…” Al Quran, 51:49, (36:36-37)
b) Sayed Abdul Wadud (a retired medical officer) wrote a very instructive book “Phenomena of Nature and The Quran”. He discussed various branches of science describing scientific facts and stated what the Quran said in that matter. It is difficult to agree with his perception of the terms jinns and ‘angels’ etc. His interpretation of Quranic ayat may be acceptable but to quote his interpretations under inverted commas as if it were the actual translation of Quranic verses could have been avoided. Nevertheless, it is a very useful book in which highly technical matter has been explained in an easily understandable language.
c) Another medical expert Maurice Bucaille, a French national, specially learnt Arabic to study the Quran. He published a very inspiring book “The Bible, The Quran and Science”.
d) Such research works highlight numerous scientific facts either suggested or very clearly recorded in the Quran, which have only been discovered and understood in modern times and that such an accurate pronouncement of scientific facts was beyond the human knowledge and perception in 7th century C.E. Only the Creator knew the facts. This leads to only one conclusion that the Quran is the word of the Creator Himself (Al Quran, 10:37). He revealed it with His knowledge (Al Quran, 4:166, 11:14), and He has taken it upon Himself to guard it (Al Quran, 15:9).
5. Since the Quran is a Divine Revelation, Islam is not a man-made code of conduct and beliefs. These directions are from the Creator Himself and are infallible, universal and eternal. He knows our nature (fitrah) and what is best for us. It is in our interest to accept and practice Islam as our way of life. If individuals reform themselves the world will reform itself. Time is ripe for return to Islam. Reactions to the present exploitive systems are inevitable. The change over may not be smooth and it may take a long time to mature but events are imperceptibly moving towards the establishment of a just and fair World Order.
“He it is Who sent His Messenger with the Guidance and the deen (way of life, religion) of Truth that He may cause it to prevail over every other deen…” Al Quran 9:33, 48:28, (61:8, 5:56)
6. This treatise on Islam may be of help as a preaching guide as well as a teaching instrument and curriculum. It also provides a compendium of quotes for the benefit of research students. References to ayat (verses) of the holy Quran are given as ‘sura number: aya number’. Their translation in English is based on the works of S. A. A. Maududi, Muhammad Asad, Abdullah Yousuf Ali and others. Some related verses are mentioned in brackets
7. I am indebted to Mrs. B. Ayisha Mustafa, Dr. Tarik Jan, Chaudary Khushi Muhammad and other scholars who cared to critically examine the draft of this treatise and helped me with valuable comments. I am grateful to my daughters Abida and Aatika for their help in typing this document and for giving it the present format. Aatika had to repeatedly type the preliminary drafts of this treatise. She did it cheerfully. Their reward is with Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.
“…Our Lord! accept (this service) from us: for Thou art the All-Hearing, the All-Knowing.” Amen.
SIDDEEQ AHMAD NAGRAH
House no. 75,
Street no. 1,
1. “Praise the name of your Lord (Rabb), the Most High, Who has created all things and further given them order and proportion; Who has ordained qadar (laws, measures, destiny) and granted guidance.” Al Quran, 87-1-3, (3:109, 6:103)
The creation of the universe and ‘Life’ is neither accidental nor is their development and maintenance entirely automatic. It is far too complex a matter to have happened by chance. The orderly and flawless manner in which the entire creation is being managed and sustained reflects a perfectly integrated plan of a Wise Being who is Omnipotent and Omniscient. “No vision can grasp Him…” (Al Quran, 6:103). However, the light of Divine Revelation, study of His creation and the exploration of nature help us to know Allah. The holy Quran repeatedly advises us to contemplate and reflect on natural phenomena including the creation of the universe and its systems, the creation of life and the creation of man, etc. (Al Quran, 2:164, 3:190, 10:6,24, 13:3,4, 15:75,77 16:11-13,68,69; 26:7,8, 30:21-24,28, 35:27-28, 39:42, 45:3-5,13, 51:20-21). To facilitate compliance of these directives, a brief account is given in the following chapters regarding the message of the Quran and some of the discoveries made by scientists recently.
This chapter (Introduction) briefly mentions some aspects of the divine systems indicated in the Quran.
2. a) “The Originator is He of the heavens and the earth and when He decrees a plan, He needs only to say ‘Be’ and it is…” Al Quran, 2:117 (3:47, 16:40, 36:82; 54:50)
Various aspects of creation are described in the Quran by different Arabic words i.e. while khalaqa is a general term (Al Quran, 6:1, 102, 25:59, 59:24, 67:2-4) the word bada’a (Al Quran, 2:117, 6:101, 85:13) and the word fatara (Al Quran, 6:14, 35:1, 42:11) refer to creation out of nothing and not a similitude of anything existing. The One in authority who creates, cherishes, evolves to completion and provides for needs and requirements is Rabb (Al Quran, 1:2, 6:102, 44:7, 45:36). The word amr conveys will, design, laws and command while the operation of amr within determined pattern, measure and parameters is Al Qadar (Al Quran, 87:3, 13:26, 8:42, 15:21, 33:38, 57:22, 65:3,). The nature of planning and the stage when an object is still in the process of ‘becoming’ i.e. Alam–e–Amr is beyond human comprehension and so is the Mashiyat of Allah – The Divine Will. Allah does whatever He wills but most people do not understand it (Al Quran 12:21, 14:27, 65:3, 5:17) and He fulfils His designs in subtle ways (Al Quran, 12:100, 7:182, 183; 68:44).
b) Everything in Allah’s creation has meaningful purpose that fits into a Wise design.
“We have not created heavens and earth and all that is between them without a meaning or purpose…” Al Quran, 38:27, (21:16-17, 44:38; 15:85, 30:8, 46:3, 6:73)WAYS OF ALLAH – ‘SUNNAT ALLAH’
3.a) All things big or small, animate or inanimate, in the heavens and earth are governed by and subjected to immutable natural laws decreed by the Creator. Thus they ‘submit’ to Allah, ‘prostrate’ themselves before Him, ‘glorify’ Him and that “they praise Him but you can not understand their prayers…” (Al Quran, 17:44), but they know their prayers and praise (Al Quran, 24:41). They bear witness to the Might and Wisdom of the Creator and glorify Him.
Al Quran, 13:2, (31:29, 35:13, 39:5,55:5); 16:48-50,
(13:15); 17:44, (57:1, 59: 24, 61:1, 62:1, 64:1)
b) The natural laws like the law of cause and effect and systems like development in stages are decreed by Allah and they are immutable.
“You will never find any change in the ways of Allah”
c) This absolute submission to laws applies to inanimate things, living things and angels. Man, however, is endowed with a limited free-will within the prescribed framework, to plan and to choose between right and wrong and be accountable for his acts and omissions.
“By the human self and Him that balanced it and inspired it with knowledge of sin and piety: Blessed shall be the man who kept it pure and ruined he that corrupted it…”QUANTUM INPUT – ‘QUDRAT ALLAH’
4.a) Allah is omnipotent. No doubt His entire creation is being run and managed in an orderly and flawless manner according to the laws and systems decreed by Him. However, He has not abdicated in favour of His laws. His is a living God (Al Quran, 2:255, 40:65). His Command and Will is concerned with every single part of His creation and every aspect of His macro and micro systems (Al Quran, 23:17, 13:8-10, 7:54).
i. “He manages and regulates (every) affair from the heaven to earth.” Al Quran, 32:5 (3:109, 13:2, 22:41; 57:5)
b) Allah is ever watchful and He does intervene when He so desires. He listens to prayers and His acceptance of a prayer may change the course of events. He allows miracles to happen against His known laws (Al Quran, 2:259-260, 3:49, 18:16-21, 19:8,29, 27:38-40). The evolution is expected to follow a continuous flow pattern but there are inexplicable gaps and extraordinary special developments. There is quantum input or Divine Intervention at crucial stages of development like the creation of inter transferable elements with systematic molecular weight; the creation of nucleic acid molecules with entirely new properties of self-duplication, mutation, building and functional instructions; the creation of single cells – the first living units which are building blocks of all living organisms; the creation of chlorophyll and, above all, the creation of Adam and Jesus
(Al Quran, 3:59).
“Allah creates what He wills; when He decrees a plan, He but says to it ‘Be’ and it is.” Al Quran, 3:47
c) This divine intervention or quantum input co-exists with the operation of decreed laws and systems. It is a manifestation of the pair symmetry in the creative pattern of the Almighty (Al Quran, 36:36-37 discussed in Chapter 3).MANKIND
5. Allah created man to be His vicegerent on earth. Mankind was helped by Divine Guidance from time to time and a final and perfect way of life was given through the Quran and the last prophet MuhammadSAAW (Al Quran, 25:1). It is expected of mankind to know Allah and to willingly conform themselves to the prescribed Islamic code of belief and conduct with particular emphasis on respect and service of humanity. This is what Worship (Ibadah) means. The formal religious ibadah, its rites and rituals, are very important but the canvas of our obligations and responsibilities is much larger. Those who strive hard and mould themselves according to the Divine Guidance will be rewarded and those who defy it will be punished. Each person will be judged by the efforts he makes for the compliance of these directives according to his capacity.
“…We created man into toil and strife…”COLLECTIVE RESPONSIBILITY
6.a) It is our individual as well as collective responsibility to recognize the Truth, live Islam wholeheartedly and strive to establish a just, fair and God-conscious society and World Order as His vicegerents on earth. Efforts are required at individual level, community level and state levels.
“You are the best of people that has ever been raised up for mankind. You enjoin what is right and forbid what is wrong; you believe in Allah…” Al Quran, 3:110, (3:104, 22:41)
b) On the Day of Judgment each person will come to Allah singly to account for his deeds (Al Quran, 19:93-95). However, there is an element of collective responsibility as well. Nations and Communities will also have to account for their deeds.
“And thou wilt see every community and nation (ummah) bowing the knee; Every ummah will be called to its record. This day shall ye be recompensed for that ye did.” Al Quran, 45:28, (17:71), (7:34, 10:49)THE DAY OF JUDGEMENT
7. A firm belief in the life Hereafter and Final Accountability on the Day of Judgment is an obligatory requirement of the faith (Al Quran, 2:4, 17:10). It is essential for moral and spiritual development, for self-contentment and for the success of economic, legal, political, social and other Islamic institutions and concepts.
i. “Allah has created the heavens and the earth with truth (meaning and purpose) and in order that each living being be rewarded for what it has earned…” Al Quran, 45:22, (11:7, 53:31), (32:19-20, 101-6-9)
8. Life generally means struggle and a lot of worldly sufferings, failures, frustration etc. along with some moments of happiness. But the balance will be set right in the life Hereafter with generous reward for patience, constancy and fortitude.
“I have rewarded them this Day for their patience and constancy; they are indeed the ones that have achieved Bliss.” Al Quran, 23:111
9. On the Day of Judgement no soul will be wronged in the least. You shall be repaid the meeds of your past deeds (Al Quran, 36:54, 40:17, 4:123). However, Allah is most Merciful, Oft-Forgiving and Wise Sovereign. He forgives whom He wills and punishes whom He wills (Al Quran, 3:129, 4:116). It is not for you to decide or suggest whether He turns in mercy to the wrong-doers (zalimûn) or punishes them, in this world or the Hereafter (Al Quran, 3:128).SALVATION
10. a) “Then (on the Day of Judgement) those whose balance (of good deeds) is heavy, they will attain salvation.”
Islam gives a positive view of Salvation. It seeks spiritual development and fulfilment (falah – Al Quran, 3:200, 22:77, 23:102) and achievement (fauz – Al Quran, 3:185, 23:111, 33:71) through personal efforts. No one shall bear the burden of another (Al Quran, 53:38, 35:18, 17:15). Each person will be judged by his own labour and he can achieve only what he strives for (Al Quran, 53:39).
b) Adam and Eve were not born in sin nor was Eve alone responsible for their expulsion from the Garden (Al Quran, 7:20-24). In fact, mankind was endowed with an upright nature (Al Quran, 30:30) but Man is vulnerable to the evil designs of Satan and his forces. Man has to make constant and strenuous efforts to do right and to ward off evil from himself and from the society in the light of Divine Guidance.